Cypress basics: xpath vs. CSS selectors
by Filip Hric, November 22, 2021
4 min read
This article is a part of series on Cypress basics. You can check out some other articles on my blog where I provide step by step explanations of some Cypress basics + some extra tips on how you can take things one step further. So far, I wrote about:
- Selecting elements
- Where did my cookies disappear?
- Check if element exists
- before(), beforeEach(), after() and afterEach()
- Check attributes, value and text
- API testing
Let me start right of the bat stating that I’m not the biggest fan of xpath selectors. In my opinion, they are hard to read, and provide little benefits in comparison to CSS selectors or data-* attributes. With jQuery bundled into Cypress, you can select your elements in a much more readable way. However, they are widely used and a go-to choice for projects where you don’t have access to the source code. That’s why it’s useful to have knowledge on how to use them.
Cypress and xpath
To use xpath selectors, you must first install a plugin. It is an official plugin maintained by Cypress. The installation is pretty standard. Just
npm install -D cypress-xpath to install the package.
You then have to add
require('cypress-xpath') to your
cypress/support/index.js file. Without this, your plugin is not registered and you will get
cy.xpath is not a function error.
If you are using TypeScript, don’t forget to add
cypress-xpath to your types in
This will add an
.xpath() command, which works similarly to
.get() command. It will return an HTML element which you can then interact with. Let’s look into a couple of xpath examples and compare them to selector usage with Cypress commands.
As is usuall with my blog, you can check out the working code in my repository branch.
Cypress vs. xpath examples
Select the whole document
Select an element by text
cy.xpath('//*[text()[contains(.,"My Boards")]]') cy.contains('My Boards')
Select a specific element by text
cy.xpath('//h1[contains(.,"My Boards")]') cy.contains('h1', 'My Boards')
Select an element by attribute
Select an element that contains a class
cy.xpath('//*[contains(@class, "font-semibold"]') cy.get('.font-semibold')
Important side note here. This xpath will match any substring in the class attribute, that means that if we had an element with a class name
button_font-semibold it would also be matched by this xpath selector.
Select an element with specific class, by text
cy.xpath('//*[contains(@class, "font-semibold")][text()[contains(.,"My Boards")]]') cy.contains('.font-semibold', 'My Boards')
Filter an element by index
cy.xpath('(//div[contains(@class, "board")])') cy.get('.board').eq(0)
Notice that xpath does not use the numbering from 0, as is often used in other languages, but starts numbering from number 1.
Select a child element
cy.xpath('//div[contains(@class, "list")]//child::div[contains(@class, "card")]') cy.get('.list').find('.card')
Select an element containing a specific child element
cy.xpath('//div[contains(@class, "list")][.//div[contains(@class, "card")]]') cy.get('.card').parents('.list')
In this example, we want to select only the list that contains some cards:
Select an element after a specific element
cy.xpath('//div[contains(@class, "card")][preceding::div[contains(., "milk")]]') cy.contains('.card', 'milk').next('.card')
Select an element before a specific element
cy.xpath('//div[contains(@class, "card")][following::div[contains(., "bread")]]') cy.contains('.card', 'bread').next('.card')
Hope this helps. I’ll be updating this post to sShare this with your friends if you feel like someone can learn from this, I’d greatly appreciate this.
If you want to learn more about selecting elements, I recommend checking out my other articles on selecting elements, autocompleting selectors or a very powerful .contains() command. Additionally, if you work with xpath, I recommend checking out Sanjay Kumar’s SelectorsHub tool.
Want to learn Cypress? Join the upcoming workshop!
Learn the core concepts, best practices and how write stable tests! Four sessions packed with great tips and on a live online workshop where you’ll learn by writing code, solving testing problems and getting your hands on Cypress. Register here!
Previous post:Autocompleting selectors in Cypress with TypeScript
Next post:Cypress basics: Variables